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Tour Guide Resource Manual...

Cover



 

Preface

 

What follows is a summary of the vast history and folklore surrounding the Church of Saint Andrew and Saint David. All information has been checked for accuracy, yet, as with all human made objects it is fallible. The folklore is far more difficult to check on the accuracy of the material. Yet these stories withstood the test of time, so there must be a nugget of truth within them. Yet, it is a personal decision as to how comfortable you are in sharing these pieces of lore with visitors. To make the identification of the folklore pieces easier, they will be underlined

.

Please remember that this is a booklet that is to be used as background material only. Do not try to share all this information with visitors!

 

If it is a walking tour that has come in, ask the tour director how long they have to spend here at the church. Then adjust the tour length to that time! Taking more time than they have will only mean we will be removed from their list of stops!


Table of Contents

Preface.............................................................................................................................................. i

Table of Contents............................................................................................................................ ii

General Information....................................................................................................................... 1

History......................................................................................................................................... 1

Presbyterianism........................................................................................................................... 2

The Great Fire............................................................................................................................. 2

Rebuilding.................................................................................................................................... 3

Calvin Presbyterian Church....................................................................................................... 4

Church Union.............................................................................................................................. 4

United Church Crest................................................................................................................... 5

Saint David's Church................................................................................................................... 5

Union of Two Churches............................................................................................................... 6

Features of the Building................................................................................................................. 6

Arches and Floor......................................................................................................................... 6

The Pews...................................................................................................................................... 6

Communion Table....................................................................................................................... 7

Minister's Chair and Chairs........................................................................................................ 7

Baptismal Font and IHS.............................................................................................................. 8

The Pulpit and John Rogerson.................................................................................................... 8

Memorial Stone........................................................................................................................... 9

The Pipe Organ......................................................................................................................... 10

The Hymn Boards..................................................................................................................... 10

Balcony Railing......................................................................................................................... 11

Push Panels on Doors to Sanctuary.......................................................................................... 11

The Bell...................................................................................................................................... 11

Stained Glass................................................................................................................................. 12

Main Floor Stained Glass Windows.......................................................................................... 12

Balcony Stained Glass Windows............................................................................................... 12

The West Windows.................................................................................................................... 13

The North Windows.................................................................................................................. 15

The South Windows................................................................................................................... 16

Narthex and Entrance Windows............................................................................................... 17

Glass Display Case........................................................................................................................ 18

Memorial Plaques......................................................................................................................... 19

Rev. William Donald,D.D.......................................................................................................... 19

Rev. John Thomson, M.A.,D.D................................................................................................. 20

Rev. L.G. Macneill, A.M........................................................................................................... 20

John Wishart, Esq..................................................................................................................... 21

Hon. William Pagan.................................................................................................................. 21

William Campbell, Esq.............................................................................................................. 22

Hon. John Robertson................................................................................................................ 22

James Walker, M.D................................................................................................................... 23

Hon. James Gordon Forbes,K.C.............................................................................................. 23

William Murdoch....................................................................................................................... 24

War Memorial Honour Rolls.................................................................................................... 25

The Chapel.................................................................................................................................... 25

Baptismal Font........................................................................................................................... 25

Chapel Furniture....................................................................................................................... 26

Chapel Flags.............................................................................................................................. 26

The Memorial Column................................................................................................................. 26

The Communion Set..................................................................................................................... 27

Notable Church Members............................................................................................................. 27

Liturgical Colours......................................................................................................................... 28

Additional Information................................................................................................................. 29

Miscellaneous Facts................................................................................................................... 29

Flags........................................................................................................................................... 29

 



 

General Information

The Church of Saint Andrew and Saint David of the United Church of Canada is an amalgamation of two churches which took place on January 1,1962.

 

History

 

The landing of the Loyalists on May 18, 1783 saw the arrival of many Scottish Presbyterians among the great numbers of Anglicans. The first year was spent building a life in this rough new wilderness. On May 18, 1784 the Presbyterian Loyalists gathered to celebrate the first anniversary of their safe arrival with a worship service. The coming together as a people of faith caused them to realise that it was time to begin the organisation of a Presbyterian Church. Thus May 18, 1784 is the day The Church of Saint Andrew and Saint David's use to mark their anniversary.

 

The founders of the church numbered many Loyalists such as William Pagan and William Campbell (plaques on either side of choir loft). It took time for the congregation to reach a point that a church structure could be built. Prior to the building of the sanctuary, some of the people worshipped with the Anglican congregation at Old Trinity (the only church in town), while others maintained a Presbyterian service when a minister could be obtained (usually a missionary minister sent out from Scotland). By 1814 the people had increased in number and felt that a proper church could be built; they became eager to worship in a Kirk of their own in their own religion. (Other early names associated with the church were John Boggs, Andrew Cornwall, James Reid, John Menzies, Charles McPherson, William Henderson, John Gemmill, Robert Chillis, John Colville, John Smith, Hugh Johnstone, William Donald, Isaac Reed, John Paul, Robert Robertson and Robert Reed).


 

Presbyterianism

The original structure was opened in May 1815. The first minister, a Rev. George Burns D.D., came from S1. Andrew's University in Scotland and gave his first sermon on May 25, 1817. It is believed that the name Saint Andrew was given to the church in honour of St. Andrew's University where Rev. Burns received his Doctor of Divinity. It was a wooden structure built with the straight strict lines of Scottish Presbyterianism. It was the first Presbyterian Church in New Brunswick and became known as the mother church of Presbyterianism in this province. Many of the Presbyterian Churches in the area developed with assistance from this main church. This occurred when people moved farther from the centre of town (such as, St. Stephen's Church, St. John Presbyterian Church, West Side Kirk, Calvin Church and St. Matthew's). Other area Presbyterian churches such as Saint David's were part of the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland that was formed by a splinter group because of a disruption in the Church of Scotland. Saint Andrew's Church was affected by this when people separated to form a Free Presbyterian Church in New Brunswick (Saint David's).

The original sanctuary, opened in 1815, was called "the Auld Kirk", until given the name Saint Andrew's in 1817. It originally held 600 people but was enlarged to hold 1000. The original pulpit rose over a dozen steps from the floor, thus making the spoken word of God above the people and central to the Sanctuary.

The Great Fire

On June 20, 1877 the Great Fire roared through the South end of Saint John. In about 10 hours the city was completely devastated. Over 1600 buildings were destroyed, over 15,000 people were left homeless and 18 people lost their lives. The damage was estimated at over $27 million (in 1877 currency). What this meant for Saint Andrew's Church was complete devastation. The church was totally destroyed, with very little evidence remaining to even prove the church had been there.


 

All that remained was the tongue of the bell, (the bell itself was made out of brass and melted in the intense heat), and the church clock (now resting over the entrance to the Chapel through the lecture hall) which was rescued by Alex A. Watson. The Silver Communion set donated by the Earl and Countess of Dalhousie, was also preserved as it was kept in the vault of the Bank of New Brunswick on Prince William Street.

The people of the church also suffered due to the fire. 80 families were left homeless, 5 members lost their lives and almost every member suffered from some form of property or financial loss. Although the Great Fire hard hit the people, immediate plans were drawn up for the rebuilding of the church.

Rebuilding

 

Due to the strict building codes brought in by the city, all buildings now had to be constructed out of brick or stone. Because of the massive rebuilding being undertaken in the city, bricks were very scarce. So, they could begin the rebuilding as soon as possible, the Elders of the church approached the owners of the Victoria Hotel that used to stand on the Duke Street side of the church about buying their old bricks. A deal was struck that allowed them to buy 100,000 bricks at a cost of $6.60/1000 or a total cost of $660.00. The story goes that 100,000 bricks was not enough, so the more adventurous members "borrowed" many more bricks from the site of the hotel under the cover of darkness. If you walk down either side of the church on the outside you will see the scarred and misshaped bricks that were used in the construction. The front of the church is built out of locally quarried limestone. There are many intricate features carved into the limestone. Towards the top you will see "St. Andrew's 1784-1878" , this was put into place at the time of rebuilding to mark the first 94 years of Presbyterianism in New Brunswick. There are three doorways into the church to remind us of the Trinity. There are four ornamental carved balls one gracing either side of each door; the two in the centre are marked with the cross of Saint Andrew on a background of Scottish thistles. The one to the right is the English roses and the one


to the left, the Irish shamrocks. The rose also represents messianic hope and love, while the shamrock is a symbol of the Trinity.

One other feature to note is the pharaoh head doorknobs. nothing

specific could be found to explain their presence. They do however bring to mind King David of the Old Testament (2 Samuel), from the lineage of Jesse of whom Jesus was a descendent (Jesse being David's father).

The light posts out front were a later addition to the front of the church. At the time of rebuilding the city was not run on electricity. There were originally three globes on each post, representing the Trinity.

Saint Andrew's Church was the first to be rebuilt after the fire. It cost $65,000.00 to erect the new structure. It reopened on the 16 of March 1879, less than two years after the fire. It is almost in the same form as it was when first constructed.

Calvin Presbyterian Church

In 1875, two years prior to the fire, Saint Andrew's Church broke its ties with the Church of Scotland after 91 years and became a member of the Presbyterian Church of Canada. On May 1, 1918, Calvin Presbyterian Church decided to join Saint Andrew's Church because it could not continue with the financial burden that had been weighing it down for years. Calvin Church was sold to the members of the Jewish Community of Saint John. It is now used as their synagogue and bears the name Synagogue Shaarei Zedek (Gates of Righteousness"). It sits on the corner of Wellington Row and Carleton Street.

Church Union

In 1925, Saint Andrew's Church became part of the Church Union movement in Canada. This was the union of the Methodists, Congregationalists and Presbyterian Churches of Canada to form the United Church of Canada. At the time all of the Methodists and Congregationalists churches came into the union in full. The

 

Presbyterian Church was divided over the issue of union, so it was left up to each individual congregation to decide what to do. The movement for church union began out West in the late 1800s as the West was just beginning to be developed. People felt that the three denominations were close enough that it seemed crazy to build three churches in each small community. The movement then had to be carried by the churches back east, where much of the money within the churches was located. Saint Andrew's Church obviously voted to join the new United Church.

United Church Crest

The United Church crest that can be found on the glass main entrance doors is filled with symbols explaining who we are as a United Church. The general shape is that of a fish which was used by the early Christians as a way to identify himself or herself. The initials of the words, "Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour" spells the Greek word for fish. The red "X" in the centre is the first letter of the Greek word for Christ and is the traditional symbol for Christ. The open Bible represents the Congregational churches, the dove is emblematic of the Holy Spirit and represents the Methodist churches and the burning bush is the symbol for the Presbyterian Churches. In the lower quarter is the symbols Alpha and omega, which are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. They symbolize the eternal living God, the beginning and the end. The Latin words ut omnes unum sint, mean "That all may be one". They are to remind us that we are a united church and an uniting church.

Saint David's Church

Saint David's Presbyterian Church was formed in 1847 when part of the congregation of Saint Andrew's left to form a Free Presbyterian Church of Saint John. The new congregation built a church on Sydney Street and officially opened on August 25, 1850 under the name Fourth Presbyterian Church, only to be renamed a year later to Saint David's Church. In 1875, Saint David's Church broke its ties with the Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland and joined in the Presbyterian Church


of Canada.

Saint David's was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1877. Its battle with flames would continue in 1917 when it succumbed again to flames. Both times the people rallied and a new church was constructed. In 1925, Saint David's Presbyterian Church became part of the United Church of Canada.

Union of Two Churches

On January 1, 1962, Saint Andrew's United Church and Saint David's United Church officially amalgamated to form The Church of Saint Andrew and Saint David, The United Church of Canada. It seemed fitting that the two congregations that were once one, were now together again. The Saint Andrew's building was selected to house the newly united congregation. Windows and furnishings from Saint David's, along with extensive renovations to the building gave a sense of newness for all who gathered for worship. The Saint David's United Church building is now the Cavalry Temple on Sydney Street.

Features of the Building

Arches and Floor

The building is built in gothic form with a large sweeping arch running down the centre with another smaller arch crossing it. There are also two vaulted arches on the second floor. The arches help give the church its amazing acoustics. The floor is actually a double floor with two separate floors with a thick (3-4 inches) felt lining in between to give a quieter sound to the building.

The Pews

The pews are rumoured to be the most comfortable pews in the city of Saint John. The minister at the time of the rebuilding (1879), a Rev. Mitchell recommended that the seats be made two inches wider in


 

the seat, two inches higher in the back and that two additional inches between the pews be allowed for comfort. Perhaps, it is no coincidence that Rev. Mitchell was renowned for his 1 to 2 hour sermons.

Note the numbers on the sides of the pews. Unlike other churches in the city, Saint Andrew's pews were not sold outright to families, rather, they were rented out on a yearly basis. For years these auctions took place every March 18. This allowed people to jockey for better positions around the church. Eventually sitting plans had to be set up in the Narthex, because the ushers found it difficult to keep up with people's movement. It wasn't until 1909 that the church began to offer free pews and this was only in the evening services. Rented pews eventually faded out in the 1910s.

Communion Table

The communion table and Minister's chair (behind the pulpit) were a gift to Saint Andrew's Church from the choir director of more than thirty years (R.D. McArthur's) who resigned in 1844. The communion table bears the inscription:

"Do This in Remembrance of Me".

It is in the form of a tomb and is reminiscent of the time when Christians celebrated the Lord's Supper upon the tombs of martyrs. The table has three front arches to remind us of the Trinity. On the alter are two candles, this is a common feature in churches especially during the celebration of Holy Communion. This church uses them every Sunday as a reminder of God's presence. In the centre of the table is the open word of God; this signifies that it is accessible to all. Note the quatrefoils on the base of the Bible stand; these symbolize the four gospels. Also the area where the table sits has been raised above ground level (where it originally sat), to give the Sacrament of Communion more emphasis.

Minister's Chair and Chairs


 

The minister's chair behind the pulpit is aptly named because it bears a plaque down the centre with the names and dates of the ministers who served both Saint Andrew's and The Church of Saint Andrew and Saint David's. Note that on the back towards the top is the shield of Saint Andrew.

The two chairs on either side of the Communion table (straight back no upholstery), were placed here in 1918 when Calvin Presbyterian Church joined. Calvin Church was unharmed by the Great fire in 1877. These chairs are believed to have been hand carved in the early 1800's. The red velvet upholstered chairs (1 behind communion table and one on either side of pulpit, were from Saint David's.

Baptismal Font and IHS

The Baptismal font was the font used by the Saint David's congregation. It has eight sides that symbolize new creation and regeneration. The cross on the top is a budded cross; the same crossused on the Christian flag. In the centre is the IHS that has several possible explanations. The first and most popular is that it is the first three letters in the Greek word for Jesus IHCOYC, over time the C was changed into a S. Another explanation is the Latin words lesus Hominum Salvator- Jesus, Saviour of men. When it is coupled with a cross, it is often said to mean In Hac Salus or in this [cross] is salvation. Note that the IHS symbol is found on the sanctuary furniture drapes as well.

The Pulpit and John Rogerson

The pulpit also came from Saint David's Church. It was hand carved by world-renowned carver Mr. John Rogerson in 1918. He gained international acclaim for his figureheads on various clipper ships built in the area. This pulpit took over a year to complete and was considered one of his finest pieces. Mr. Rogerson was 84 years old at the time of carving. He served Saint David's for many years as an Elder. There is a story that goes along with the pulpit: In the centre panel of the pulpit is the carving of the Presbyterian symbol. The Burning Bush. It's Latin motto when translated means "nevertheless not consumed' (NEC TAMEN CONSUMEBATUR). This centre panel was carved much earlier than the rest of the pulpit. It seems that Saint David's had a new organ installed that had pipes running in a panel up both sides of the sanctuary. The organ had one panel missing, so Mr. Rogerson carved the panel of the Burning Bush to fill the hole. In 1917 flames once again consumed Saint David's. The following day after the fire the minister (Rev. JA McKeigan) went to examine the remains and kicked a piece of wood. That piece of intact wood was the Burning Bush, which was nevertheless not consumed. Note the more intricate details such as the Celtic cross surrounded by grapes. The circle signifies eternity, this cross is known as the Irish Cross or the cross of lana. The grapes signify the sacrifice Jesus made for our sins. In the other corner is a crown to represent that Jesus Christ is Lord and King. The archway supported by two pillars give witness to the apostles and prophets (Eph. 2:20 and Gal. 2:9). The arch symbolises the link between God and the people. The flowers denote the beauty of God and the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

In the frame to the right of the pulpit and organ loft is a pencil drawing of John Rogerson and closer detail shots of the pulpit. The most exquisite thing Mr. Rogerson had created is the president's chair for the Saint Andrew's Society. It contains over 11 different types of wood from all over Scotland and is now on display in the lobby of the Hilton Hotel.

Memorial Stone

The memorial stone which was laid as the foundation for the pulpit in 1879, is in honour of the five members (Mrs. Thomas Reed, Mr. Joseph Bell, Capt. Wm. M.B. Firth, and the Misses Clark), of Saint Andrew's Church who died in the Great Fire. Underneath the stone is a historical sketch of Saint Andrew's Kirk up to the Great Fire. It is inscribed with:

"Other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus

Christ."

1 Corinthians 3: 11


The Pipe Organ

The main feature of the church is the three manual pipe organ crafted for the church by the Cassavant Freres of St. Hyacinthe, Quebec. It was installed in 1927 at a cost of $15,000.00. Today's replacement value is over $600,000.00. It is considered one of the finest pipe organs in the Maritime Provinces.

Quick Facts:

- It has 2545 speaking pipes

- 39 stops

- Over 500 electromagnets in the mechanisms

- Over 30 miles of very fine copper wire

- Contains 4 organs in 1

- Great organ

- Swell organ

- Choir organ

- Pedal organ

- These four organs can be played together or separately.

- Almost any instrument can be simulated on the organ

- Weighs approximately 8 tons or 16,000 Ibs.

The Organ panels are carved with many trefoils, which are a symbol similar to the quatrefoils, yet represents the Trinity. On the wall to the left of the choir loft is a plaque honouring all those who gave so generously to the restoration of the organ, starting in 1975.

The Hymn Boards

The hymn boards are carved with the Scottish thistle on the top. It also has the quatrefoil (representing the Four gospels). They are topped off with two equal shaped steeples; these symbolize the two natures of Jesus Christ. (Man and God).


 

Balcony Railing

The balcony railing contains various forms of crosses, quatrefoils, and fleur-de-lis. It looks of wood but is actually cast iron.

Push Panels on Doors to Sanctuary

Push panels on the doors leading into the Sanctuary all incorporate the butterfly, which symbolises resurrection and eternal life. There are two birds (lower down), making reference to the presentation of Jesus in the temple. A decorative flower graces the centre and like all flowers symbolises God's beauty.

The Bell

The entrance to the bell tower is on the second floor to the right.

The bell is inscribed with:

"In that day there shall be upon The bell, Holiness unto the Lord.

Zechariah 14:20. Presented to St. Andrew's Church by Alexander Jardine, Saint John, N.B., January 1878."

It also bears the following portion of Tennyson's poem "In Memoriam":

 

 Ring out a slowly dying cause,

And ancient forms of party strife.

Ring in the nobler modes of life,

With sweeter manners, purer laws.

Ring in the valiant man, and free,

The larger heart, kindlier hand.

Ring in the Christ that is to be."

For many years the bell had remained silent due to a mechanical


 

problem. In 1995, this church gave sanctuary to a young refugee family from Romania who were facing deportation. The family lived in the chapel (outback) for approximately 1 month. Through the support of the church, they were able to have their claim re-examined by Canadian Immigration after moving to a third country (United States). To fill his days, the father spent his time reconfiguring the bell's pulley system. The bell has since again been repaired by the men of the congregation. It is now rung every Sunday to remind people of the young family and their struggle for freedom and peace. They now live in Canada with landed immigrant status.

Stained Glass

Main Floor Stained Glass Windows

The stained glass windows along the main floor are inscribed with the Apostle's Creed. This starts on the front window on the Duke Street side and ends on the front window of the Horsfield Street side. Note the crosses of St. Andrew and the fleur-de-lis (a symbol of the Trinity). These windows are etched to allow for the intricate details of the patterns. The main flower depicted is similar to the thistle that represents the Scottish tradition of the church. Note the one purple cross with the green centre, on either side of the sanctuary. Purple has two liturgical meanings; first it is a regal colour referring to the triumphant entry of the King of kings who was of Royal Davidic descent. Secondly it is the colour of Penitence, referring to the robes they put on Jesus when they mocked him. This is perhaps, the meaning behind it here, because it is combined with green that signifies hope. Thus, we are mourning, yet still hopeful. Note the large quatrefoils in some of the windows signifying the four gospels.

Balcony Stained Glass Windows

The stained glass windows on the second floor are a combination of the windows of Saint Andrew's and Saint David's. The four darker units on either side are from Saint David's; these were brought down in 1961. They date back to 1919. The remaining windows on each side are


 

from Saint Andrew's and date back to 1879.

The windows taken out to make way for Saint David's windows are now in the chapel.

The West Windows

The west windows (over the entrance) show Jesus as the Good Shepherd, which reads:

"I am The Good Shepherd".

The four gospel writers (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) flank this. *What follows are a more detailed examination of the symbols incorporated into the windows. The symbols of the gospel writers are found underneath their portrait:

Matthew's symbol is a winged man with a book, because his gospel dwells more on the human side of Jesus Christ than the other gospels.

Mark's symbol is a winged lion. The lion as the king of the beasts, represents the royal character of Christ and reflects the opening verses of the gospel; "a voice of one crying in the wilderness" (Ch.1: 3). Also Mark's emphasis on the resurrection is indicated by the lion; according to legend the cub of a lion is supposed to be born dead and after three days licked into life by its father.

Luke's symbol is the winged ox, because his gospel emphasises in the latter part, the sacrificial death of the Saviour.

John's symbol is the eagle. The spirit of the gospel of John is like an eagle soaring to the throne of grace. These symbols are Bible based imagery from Ezekiel 1 :10 and Revelations 4:6&7 (i.e .. the four winged creatures with the face of...).

Above Luke and John is a smaller window with a Lamb carrying a banner. This represents Christ as the sacrificial lamb. The white flag


 

represents the body of Christ. The cruciform staff (holds the flag) represents the cross on which the Lamb of God dies and through which the risen Lord saves the world. Because the lamb is standing means, that the Lord is triumphant over death, He is risen.

Over Matthew and Mark, there is a smaller window depicting a pelican and her young. This is called the pelican-in-her-piety and is a symbol of Jesus Christ and his atonement on the cross. This rests upon the story that a pelican will tear open her breast and feed her young with her own blood in times of famine.

The number three is repeated throughout the pattern, all of which symbolises the Trinity. (I.e. 3 flowers, 3 points, 3 pointed designs, etc)

The quatrefoils at the top (7 windows) is a leaf with four lobes or foils that have symbolized the various fours in Church history; such as the four gospels, the four evangelists, the four Greek doctors, the four Latin fathers, etc.)

Note that there are seven of them. 7 is regarded by the church as the perfect number, as it is the total of 3 and 4. 4 is a man number referring to the four seasons of the year and the four corners of the earth. 3 is a God number referring to the Trinity.

The symbol under Jesus is the Alpha and the Omega. This represents Jesus as "the same yesterday and today and forever", "the first and the last", and "the beginning and the end." There are 7 5pointed stars surrounding Jesus head. 7 being the perfect number and the 5 points representing the manifested nature of God.

The eight-pointed star symbolises regeneration or baptism. The five-pointed star above the heads of the gospel writers is symbolic of the epiphany or the manifested nature of God.

The lilies at Jesus' feet are a symbol of Easter and symbolises the resurrection of Jesus Christ. The gown Jesus is wearing is covered in

 

the fleur-de-lis to reflect the trinity.

The various designs of flowers represent the beauty of God and the resurrection of Christ. Note the angel in the centre quatrefoil is viewed as a symbol of heaven.

The North Windows

The north windows (Horsfield Street) show Saint Paul in the centre; note the sword that He holds in his hand. Saint Paul is often depicted with a sword because it symbolises the good fight of faith he fought and his martyrdom by the sword. Behind him there are shamrocks and fleur-de-lis, that represents the Trinity. Also his robe is covered with the fleur-de-lis.

On the left is a young Jesus teaching in the temple:

"Jesus increased in wisdom and stature." (Luke 2:52)

Note the nimbuses around the heads of Jesus and his parents.

And on the right Jesus in the Garden of Gethsemane just before he was betrayed:

'Thy Will Be Done" (Matthew 26:42)

There is a flower on these windows that resembles a violet, the violet is the symbol of humility and secrecy because of its growing location, usually hidden from sight. The smaller windows under each large window have the general shape of the fleur-de-lis.

Above the windows of Jesus teaching in the temple there is a symbol of the Trinity, known as the Shield of the Trinity. It is in the form of a triangle with each point being a circle. The circle at the top has a P for

 

Pater or Father; the one at the bottom left has SS for Spiritus Sanctus or Holy Spirit and on the right an F for Filius or Son. Each corner has a line going to a centre circle, which has the word Deus or God. Each line running to the centre says Est, which means "is". Thus:

 

The Father is God

 The Son is God

 The Holy Spirit is God.

The lines running between the P, F, and SS have Non Est which means "is not". Thus:

The Father is not the Son

 The Son is not the Holy Spirit

 The Holy Spirit is not the Father.

The window over Jesus in the garden shows a crown that represents Jesus as Lord and King. Note in the centre quatrefoil an angel playing a harp. The angel, a heavenly symbol and the harp represents the joyful worship and the joy found in heaven.

The South Windows

The south windows (Duke Street) show Saint Andrew on a background of fleur-de-lis and shamrocks (Trinity). The cross he holds is called the cross of Saint Andrew and marks his great suffering in the name of Jesus Christ. When he was martyred he was bound to the cross rather than nailed to prolong his suffering. He is flanked by Jesus calling to his disciples:

"Follow me and I will make you fishers of men." (Mark 1:17)

And a memorial window to those who fell in the First World War. It shows

 

Jesus talking with a soldier:

"I have not found so great faith, no, not in Israel." (Luke 7:9)

Above the window of Jesus calling to his disciples, is a dove with an olive branch in its mouth. This represents the dove out of the story of Noah and the flood in Gen. 8 and symbolises the deluge, the victory and the expectation of new life. The dove is also the symbol of the Holy Spirit (the description of the Holy Spirit descending like a dove is in Matthew 3:16).

The window above the memorial windows, is a picture of a chalice, which is the symbol of Holy Communion. It is surrounded by clusters of grapes symbolic of the Blood of Christ and the wheat sprays to symbolize the Bread of Life. The use of grapes and wheat imagery is used throughout the upstairs windows.

Note that the three areas of windows are equal in size and design and are an indication of the Trinity.

Narthex and Entrance Windows

Continuing with the stained glass, you can point out the angels in the back wall stained glass, the symbolism is not clear behind these faces, it could be something simple like they are watching over the house of God. The number of them, 3 is significant of God and the Trinity. Note in the intricate etching the incorporation of the fleur-de-lis and shamrocks both symbols of the Trinity. There is the usage of two flowers on these windows, first the daisy (higher up) signifying the Christ Child's innocence, and the lower flower, which resembles the sunflower. The sunflower is emblematic of the soul turning to Christ, because of the flower's habit of turning toward the sun; it is also symbolic of glory, gratitude, and remembrance.

The small windows in the Narthex over the entrance read:


 

This is none other but the House of the God.

The Lord is in His Holy Temple.

Enter His gates with Thanksgiving.

The Narthex entrance is symbolic; the three doorways leading into the Narthex are symbolic of the Trinity. Above each door are three quatrefoils thus again symbolizing the Trinity. Note the use of the fleur-de-lis and the repetition of threes throughout the design: all symbolic of God and the Trinity. Also, note the use of the daisy that symbolises the Christ Child's innocence and innocence in general and youth.

Glass Display Case

A small glass display case at the back of the church contains a number of historical items.

Communion tokens would be in the possession of members in good standing with the church. In the Presbyterian Church not everyone could take communion, so the members of the church had to have some proof of membership. Thus the communion tokens. Prior to the sacrament of communion being administered the minister or the elders would go down the line of people taking communion and ask to see their tokens. The ones on display came to us from Calvin Presbyterian Church and bear the name of the church on one side and the inscription "Do this in Remembrance of me" on the other. These were the precursors to the Communion Cards people would later carry with them. Now in the United Church all are welcome at the Lord's Table.

There are three extremely old pewter communion chalices (dates unknown), that would have been the style used before the church moved to individual cups. This move was made between the years 1912 - 1915. An early example of a marriage certificate issued in 1837 by Rev. Robert Wilson. The marriage was between Peter Campbell and Anne Douglas on May 23, 1837.

A Psalter used in Saint Andrew's dating from May 4,1835.

A copy of a hymnbook used in Saint Andrew's Kirk's Sunday school. This dates back to the mid 1800's.

 

The tuning fork was used by the precentor in the early days of the church when there was no organ available for playing. The precentor who was stationed below the pulpit would begin every hymn with a touch of the fork. The last year there was a precentor in this church was 1847, he was replaced by a choir who led the singing of the hymns. It was not until 1867 that an organ was purchased for the church, and it was then only allowed to play the hymn; no other extra music was allowed.

The sermons and prayer book of Rev. George Burns is extremely rare. Rev. Burns published this book in the early 1800's; he was the first full time minister to serve at the Kirk.

Memorial Plaques

The various memorial plaques around the sanctuary are in honour of the following people (what follows here is the inscription on each plaque and a short history behind each name, starting on the left of the church and going around).

Rev. William Donald,D.D.

Erected

By The Union Lodge of Portland F. & A.M.,

In Memory of their late Chaplain, Rev. William Donald, D.D.

Minister of this church for 22 years.

Who died Feb. 20th 1871, Aged 63 years.

Rev, William Donald, D.O. was born at Edingight Grange, Banffshire, on the sixth of June 1807. Mr. Donald was ordained after receiving the appointment from the Church of Scotland to take charge of Saint Andrew's Church in Saint John (April 1849). He arrived in 1849, and remained for 22 years and was thought of as one of the most esteemed ministers Saint Andrew's Church ever had. He formed the Presbyterian Church in Rothesay, N.B. He was known as a caring person and a diligent worker in the name of God

Rev. John Thomson, M.A.,D.D

In

Memory of

Rev. John Thomson, M.A., D.D.

First Minister of This Church Born at St. Andrew's, Scotland, January 7th, 1819,

Died at Forres, Scotland,

 March 1st, 1893.

(Smaller Plaque)

First Minister of Saint David's Church.

Rev. John Thomson was the first minister of Saint David's Presbyterian Church. He arrived in Saint John from St. Andrew's, Scotland in November, 1848. He preached his first sermon on December 2, 1848. Rev. Thomson was officially inducted as minister on August 16, 1849. He remained at Saint David's until May 30, 1851.

 Rev. L.G. Macneill, A.M.

Sacred to

The Memory of

Rev. L.G. Macneill A.M.

Who for 18 years was the Faithful Pastor of this Church.

1886-1904

Died Oct. 14, A.D. 1913, Universally Esteemed.

This tablet is erected to his memory by this congregation.

"For he givest his Beloved sleep."

Rev. Leander G. McNeill, A.M. became the minister of Saint Andrew's Kirk on Oct. 11, 1886. He was born in 1845 the son of Mr.& Mrs. McNeill of Cavendish, PEL He was the first minister to be born on North American soil. He served the church for over 17 years and was truly loved.


 

John Wishart, Esq.

In Memory of

John Wishart, Esq.

A Native of Montrose, Scotland.

A Member of this Church for 76 years.

An Elder for 31 years,

Who died Feb. 18, 1893 Aged 94 years.

John Wishart was born at Montrose, Scotland in 1799 and in 1818 he arrived in Saint John. He became involved in shipbuilding, with most of his ships built in St. Martins. He was an elder of Saint Andrew's Kirk and a member of the St. Andrew's Society for 72 years. He never married or had children. One story told about him is that he had a strong hand and took pleasure in squeezing someone's hand till it cracked. One man that he hurt badly, laid off and hit Mr. Wishart just so he could get his hand back. Mr. Wishart was an incredibly generous man and an excellent businessman.

Hon. William Pagan

In Memory of

Hon. William Pagan,

Born at Glasgow, Died in Fredericton, N.B.

March 12, 1819.

A supporter of the crown and Eminent Loyalist,

He removed from Falmouth to Parrtown

At Close of American Revolution.

First president St. Andrew's Society, St. John, 1798 and for ten subsequent years.

Erected by the society in place of former memorial Destroyed in Fire 1877

A.D. MCMWIII

William Pagan was a native of Glasgow, Scotland and moved to Falmouth (now Portland, Maine). He was a Loyalist who fought against the Americans. Mr. Pagan was elected member for St. John County at the first election and held it to his death in 1829. He was one of the founders and incorporators of the Saint Andrew's Kirk. Mr. Pagan owned the land where Pagan Place is today. He died childless and a bachelor. He continued as an Elder until his death.

William Campbell, Esq.

Erected by St. John's Lodge NO.2 A.F. and A.M. To The Memory of William Campbell, Esquire

A Native of Argyleshire, Scotland

For over 20 years Mayor of This City

 And one of the First Elders of This Church Died Feb. 10, A.D. 1823, Aged 81 years Universally and Deeply Regretted.

This tablet is erected to replace the one destroyed in the Great Fire of June A.D. 1877

and in brotherly love to one of their founders.

William Campbell was born in Argyleshire, Scotland in 1742. He emigrated to North America finally settling in New York. Mr. Campbell fought on the side of the Loyalists and moved to St. John were he remained till his death. He became a freeman of the city in 1795 and was appointed mayor in the same year. He held that position until 1816. Mr. Campbell took an active part in the St. Andrew's Society and was one of the pioneers of St. Andrew's Kirk and one of its very first elders. He died on Feb. 10, 1823, and was buried in the Loyalist Burial Grounds.

Hon. John Robertson

In Memory of

Honourable John Robertson

 Born in Perthshire, Scotland in 1799.

died at Lawford Place, Essex, England in 1876 and was Buried in Lawford Churchyard.

A Leading Merchant of This city for Many Years.

Appointed Mayor in 1836, called to the Legislative Council in 1839

 And one of the First Senators of the Dominion of Canada.

He was an early friend of St. Andrew's Church and an honoured Elder For Thirty Years.

“The Memory of the Just is blessed!"

This tablet erected to His Memory by his Daughters, May, 1918.

The Hon. John Robertson arrived in Saint John in 1817. He quickly became a successful businessman in mercantile pursuits and the manufacture of lumber. He became mayor in 1836, and was a member of the Legislative Council for N.B. from 1839 to 1867. At that point Mr. Robertson took a seat in the Canadian Senate. It was on his wharf in Rothesay that the Prince of Wales acceded to the request that the village and station should bear the name of Rothesay. In 1873 he moved to Lawford, England. Mr. Robertson was a great financial supporter of the church.

James Walker, M.D.

In Memory of James Walker, M.D.

Born in Saint John, N.B.

December 21, 1829.

Died January 14, 1914.

One of the Leading Physicians of His Native city. A life long member of St. Andrew's Church.

Elected an Elder in 1885.

And by His Generosity During His Lifetime was of Great Financial Assistance

To This Congregation.

This tablet is erected to his memory by the Church in appreciation of His splendid Generosity.

Dr. Walker offered to loan St. Andrew's $30,000.00 to rebuild the church, at the time of his death the debt was erased.

Hon. James Gordon Forbes,K.C.

To The Glory of God

And in Remembrance of Hon. James Gordon Forbes, K.C.

Citizen, Judge and Churchman

Vice-President of the British and Foreign Bible Society

Frequent Delegate to Ecclesiastical Assemblies

At Home and Abroad

And for Over Fifty Years a Representative Elder of this Church

 

born in Pictou County 1837 Died at Toronto 1932 "And in God's House forever more

My Dwelling Place Shall be"

Mr. Forbes was born in Pictou County, N.S. on May 1,1837. He took his law degree from Harvard University. Being an eloquent lawyer and orator, he was influential in bringing the province into confederation. Mr. Forbes served as an Elder of the church from 1880. He was a member of the St. Andrew's Society. On Jan. 18, 1895, he was made the Judge of the St. John County Court. Mr. Forbes died in Toronto in 1932. He was an incredible asset to the church.

William Murdoch

In Loving Memory of

William Murdoch

Born in

Paisley, Scotland April 16, 1848

 Died in

Saint John, N.B., October 8,1917

Charter Member

Engineering Institute of Canada

City Engineer

of the City of Saint John, N.B.

A Life Long member of This Congregation

Placed here by his Son

Gilbert Gray Murdoch

William Murdoch took the levels and grades of the lot for the new church on Aug. 20.1877. Not much else has yet been found.


War Memorial Honour Rolls

On the back wall of the sanctuary, the war memorials from the two churches honouring the young men who so valiantly gave up their lives in World War One and World War Two. Out in the Narthex, the four honour rolls are on display. They list all those who served in both wars. Note the various names of young women.

 

The Chapel

The chapel, to which one gains admittance through the Sanctuary door on the right side of the pulpit, contains the windows removed from the main sanctuary to make way for the windows relocated from Saint David's in 1962.

Baptismal Font

The Baptismal Font is the one from Saint Andrew's and is carved of granite. It is circular in shape emphasising the beginning of eternal salvation. It is inscribed with:

One Lord

 One Faith

 One Baptism.

The red upholstered chair came from Saint David's and would have been the minister's chair bearing the name of the ministers whom served the church. This matches the chair behind the communion table and the ones on either side of the pulpit in the main sanctuary. The other intricately carved chair came from Calvin Presbyterian Church in 1918, and matches the two smaller chairs on either side of the communion table in the sanctuary. On the wall across from the stain glass windows are portraits of Rev. George Burns, Rev. Dr. William Donald and Rev L.G. Macneill. The portraits of Rev. Burns and Rev. Dr. Donald replace ones destroyed in the fire of 1877; both men were early ministers of the Saint Andrew's Kirk. These were painted by long time member W.E. Richards.

Chapel Furniture

The chapel furniture is more modern (rail, alter, pulpit) dating back to the 1960's. Prior to that time the chapel was used as the minister's study. If you step outside the chapel into the lecture hall and look directly over the doorway, you will see the place where the church clock that was saved from the Great Fire by church member Alex A. Watson was placed. The clock has since been replaced.

Chapel Flags

The chapel contains the flags of Canada and the Union Jack; these are memorial flags placed in memorial in March 1946 dedicated to all the young men who fell in both World Wars. These replaced the flags dedicated in 1930 in honour of those who lost their lives in WWI. The flag of Scotland is also present in honour of the Scottish tradition of the church.

The Memorial Column

The Memorial Column located outside to the left of the main entrance to the church was donated by the '34 Club (that was formed to plan the 150th anniversary of the church in 1934). It was dedicated on May 18, 1934. It bears the shield presented by the Saint John Presbytery, also in 1934 to commemorate the heritage of the church. It reads:

This Shield

Was Erected By

The Presbytery of Saint John

on May 18,1934

To Commemorate The

Establishment in 1784

 of Saint Andrew's Kirk

Mother Church of Presbyterianism

in New Brunswick.

 

In the year 2000, another plaque was added to the column marking the church as a provincial heritage site. The inscription reads:

 

New Brunswick

Church of Saint Andrew and Saint David

 Constructed in 1879, on the site of the 1815, "Auld Kirk"

, the present church is a faithful representation of the

Gothic Revival style. One highlight of the interior is

the Gothicised pulpit by local carver John Rogerson.

Provincial Historic Site.

The Communion Set

The solid silver communion chalices were a gift from the Lieutenant- Governor the Right Honourable George Ramsay, Earl of Dalhousie and Lady Dalhousie. (Governor of Nova Scotia, founder of Dalhousie University in Halifax). They gave them to the Kirk in 1818, a year before he was named Governor General of Canada. The Earl of Dalhousie had a very close relationship with Rev. Burns. They survived the fire because they were kept in the vault of the New Brunswick Bank.

 

The silver footed plates (patens- the resting-place for the chalices), were received as a gift from Miss Agnes Campbell daughter of William Campbell (mayor of Saint John between 1795-1816), on April 16, 1835. Miss Campbell died in 1840 at the age of 78 years.

The urns, plates and the four trays of individual glasses were presented as a gift by Major- General the Honourable Hugh Havelock McLean, K.C., V.D., L.L.D., U.E. Lt. Governor of N.B., as a memorial to his wife, Jennie M. Porteus. between the years 1912-1915.

 

Notable Church Members

 

Charles Mc Pherson- kept the famous CoffeeHouse at the foot of King Street (now the TD Bank). (Saint Andrew's)

 

Dr. William Livingstone- a leading physician of his time; a relative of the great African explorer. He himself had been on an expedition to the Arctic. (Saint Andrew's)

 

J. W. Lawrence- procurer of early New Brunswick history. He was responsible for gathering much of the early history we now have of New Brunswick. (Saint Andrew's)

 

Dr. James Waddell- superintendent of the Provincial Hospital for the Treatment of Nervous Disorders. He brought many of the open concepts in the treatment of mental illnesses to North America. (Saint Andrew's) John Rogerson- world-renowned wood carver, known for his beautiful figureheads. (Saint David's)

 

G. Forbes Elliot- Vice-President of the University of New Brunswick, Saint John Campus. (Saint Andrew and Saint David)

 

Liturgical Colours

 

White - symbol of the creator, light, joy, purity, innocence, glory and perfection.

Violet - symbol of mourning and pertinence.

Purple - is a regal colour, refers to the triumphant entry of the King of kings.

Red - depicts divine zeal on the day of Pentecost and refers to the blood of martyrs.

Green - is the universal colour of nature and signifies hope. Black - the colour of grief and sorrow.

Gold - refers to worth, virtue, the Glory of God and Christian might.

 

 

 

Additional Information

Miscellaneous Facts

 

1919 saw the beginning of joint summer services with Germain St. Baptist Church. These still continue today.

 

April 4, 1913 was a day many members held in disgust, as it was the day the church started to pay for advertising in the local newspaper.

 

Saint John covers 323 sq. km. It averages 9.5 feet (293cm) of snow per year and 1152 mm of rain.

Population is approximately 150, 000

.

Flags

 

The Provincial flag is based on the Coat of Arms adopted in 1965. The ship represents the province's maritime location and its earlier ship-building industry. The lion is the symbol of the House of Brunswick that was in power when New Brunswick was formed.

 

The Union Jack was the flag the Loyalists brought with them. It is the British flag and was used as Canada's flag for many years until the Maple Leaf. The red stripes on either side represent how Canada stretches from Sea to Sea. The maple leaf has twelve points to represent the 10 provinces and 2 territories (now three territories).

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